→ All Risk
Giving up the proprietary rights in insured property to the underwriter in exchange for payment of a constructive total loss.
Acceptance by the carrier of a portion of a joint rate or charge which is less than the amount which it would receive for the service in the absence of such joint rate or charge (air cargo).
Agreement to pay at some future date – a “time draft” drawn on the accepting party.
Acceptance of Goods
Process of receiving a consignment from a shipper, usually against the issue of a receipt. As from this moment and at this place the carrier’s responsibility for the consignment begins.
→ Approved Continuous Examination Program
Acknowledgement of Receipt
Notification relating to the receipt of, for example, goods, messages and documents.
Air Cargo Process. Computer system used at UK airports as an intermediary between airlines, airports authorities, agents and customs declarations.
Act of God
Natural event, such as floods, storms, lightning, earthquakes, etc., not preventable by human agency. Forces of nature that a carrier has no control over, and therefore cannot be held accountable for.
Synonym: → Force Majeure
Actual Total Loss
This occurs when: 1. The insured property is completely destroyed; or 2. The insured is irretrievably deprived of the insured property; or 3. Cargo changes in character so that it is no longer the thing that was insured (e.g., cement becomes concrete) or 4. A ship is posted “missing” at Lloyd’s, in which case both the ship and its cargo are deemed to be an actual total loss.
Actual Voyage Number
Code for identification purposes of the voyage of a vessel.
Mode of freight or customs duties levied on cargo based on its value.
→ Ad Valorem Duty
Ad Valorem Bill of Lading
Same as Valued Bill of Lading.
Ad Valorem Duty
Tax imposed on merchandise based on its value.
Value attributed to products, and services as the result of a particular process (e.g. production process, storage, transport).
→ Articles Dangereux de Route
Down payment on account of final invoice amount.
Advance against Documents
Down payment in exchange for original shipping documents.
Same as Prepaid Freight.
Interline carrier that picks up cargo from the shipper and delivers it to another carrier for shipment to the consignee.
Exposure of property to risk.
→ General Average Act (York-Antwerp Rules)
Written shipment information, for example, about the status of the goods.
Advice of Fate
Notice given by the collecting bank to the remitting bank as to payment, acceptance, non-payment, or non-acceptance of a draft presented at the remitting bank’s request.
Bank that handles Letters of Credit (L/C) for a foreign bank by notifying the seller that the buyer has opened a L/C in their favor. The advising bank fully informs the seller of the conditions of the Letter of Credit.
Term indicating that agent or representative is not empowered to make definitive decisions or adjustments without approval of the group or individual represented.
Special accessories in a container consisting of, among other things, the attachment rails on the inside walls to provide facilities for lashing and securing of the cargo.
Contract which sets forth the obligations of both shipper and carrier concerning transportation of the merchandise. The most common forms of affreightment are Bills of Lading and Waybills.
At, near or towards the stern or rear of a vessel or an aircraft.
Fee payable by shipowner or ship operator to port agent.
A company (or person) which does business on behalf of another company based on a contractual agreement.
Inventory for any group of items or products, involving multiple stock-keeping units.
Synonym: Aggregate Stock
Airline operating regional passenger traffic.
Air Consignment Note
→ Air Waybill
Abbreviation: AWB. Document used for carriage by air, evidencing the conclusion of a contract of carriage. This is a non-negotiable document of air transport that serves as a receipt for the shipper, indicating that the carrier has accepted the goods listed and obligates itself to carry the consignment to the airport of destination according to specified conditions.
→ Consignment Note → Bill of Lading → Through Bill of Lading
Abbreviation: A.R. Broadest form of insurance cover available, providing protection against all risks of physical loss or damage from any external cause. Does not cover loss or damage due to delay, inherent vice, pre-shipment condition, inadequate packaging or loss of market.
→ ICC → Named Perils Policy
Share of the capacity of a means of transport assigned to a certain party, e.g. a carrier or an agent, for the purpose of booking cargo for a specific voyage.
Phrase referring to the side of a ship. Goods to be delivered “alongside” are to be placed on the dock or barge within reach of the transport ship’s tackle so that they can be loaded aboard the ship.
→ Free Alongside Ship (FAS)
Designed for clients with a small turnover of Goods in Transit. A deposit premium is paid and this is adjusted at the end of the year based on declarations made.
A vessel’s outfit, such as rigging, anchor and life boats. 2. The term used in distribution/transport of clothing for a single piece of clothing – a garment.
Approved Continuous Examination Program
Abbreviation: ACEP. Agreement between the owners of the equipment and the responsible government body to allow continuous examination of the equipment (e.g. containers).
Vessel which the underwriters deem adequate to carry the insured cargo, at the agreed rate of premium. Where the vessel is not approved, the risk is still covered but is subject to a reasonable additional premium.
Buying of foreign exchange, securities, or commodities in one market and the simultaneous selling in another market. By this manipulation a profit is made because of the difference in the rates of exchange or in the prices of securities or commodities involved.
Code specifying an area.
Notice sent by a carrier or freight forwarder to notify party advising the arrival of a shipment.
Articles Dangereux de Route
Abbreviation: ADR. European agreement concerning the international carriage of dangerous goods by road.
Stage of production in which components are put together into an end product.
Transfer of the rights, duties, responsibilities and/or benefits of an agreement, contract, or financial instrument to a third party.
Assignment of Proceeds
Stipulation within a Letter of Credit in which some or all of the proceeds are assigned from the original beneficiary to one or more additional beneficiaries.
Party that has legal title to the cargo and to whom a claim payment will be paid.
1. Behind a vessel or an aircraft. 2. Backward; in a reverse direction
Across the vessel, i.e., from one side to the other.
Methodical examination and review of a situation or condition (as within a business enterprise) concluding with a detailed report of findings.
Proof by means of a signature or otherwise that a certain document or certain data is of undisputed origin and is genuine.
Commission to a certain person or body to act on behalf of another person or body.
Container equipped for the transportation of vehicles.
Automated Guided Vehicle System
Unmanned vehicles equipped with automatic guidance equipment which follow a prescribed path.
Means of identifying an item (e.g. a product, parcel or transport unit) by a device entering the data automatically into a computer. The most widely used technology at present is bar code; others include radio frequency, magnetic stripes and optical character recognition.
Any loss or damage due to insured perils that is less than a total loss. Two types of average occur: Particular Average and General Average.
→ Particular Average → General Average → Average Adjusters
In general average adjusters are entrusted with the task of apportioning the loss and expenditure over the parties interested in the maritime venture. They also determine which expenses are to be regarded as average or general average.
Clause in marine policy which sets out the cover provided in the event of partial loss.
Average Irrespective of Percentage
Indicates that partial losses will be paid regardless of any franchise or percentage.
→ Air Waybill
Both Days Inclusive.
→ Bill of Lading
1. Back letters are drawn up in addition to a contract in order to lay down rights and/or obligations between both contracting parties, which, for various possible reasons, cannot be included in the original contract.
2. This expression is sometimes used for letters of indemnity.
Customer order or commitment, which is unfilled due to insufficient stock.
1. The quantity of goods still to be delivered, received, produced, issued, etc., for which the planned or agreed date has expired. 2. The total number of customer orders which have been received but not yet been shipped.
Synonym: → Open Order
→ Bunker Adjustment Factor
Balance of Trade
Difference between a country’s total imports and exports. If exports exceed imports, a favorable balance of trade exists; if not, a trade deficit is said to exist.
The capacity of cargo spaces under the deck of a vessel (including hatchways but excluding void spaces behind cargo battens and beams) expressed in cubic meters or cubic feet.
Materials carried to improve the trim and the stability of the vessel. Vessels usually carry water in tanks as ballast. The tanks are specially designed for this purpose.
Check issued by a bank.
Undertaking by a bank to effect payment of a sum of money in the event of non performance by the party on whose behalf the guarantee is issued.
Negotiable time draft drawn on and accepted by a bank that adds its credit to that of an importer of merchandise.
“Time draft” drawn on a bank and bearing the bank’s promise to pay at a future date.
For marine purposes the practice of always keeping more than one piece of cargo on the quay or in the vessel ready for loading or discharging in order to avoid delays and to obtain optimal use of the loading gear.
Method of encoding data for fast and accurate electronic readability. Bar codes are a series of alternating bars and spaces printed or stamped on products, labels, or other media, representing encoded information which can be read by electronic readers, used to facilitate timely and accurate input of data to a computer system.
Charter whereby the charterer leases the bare ship and appoints the master and crew itself.
Flat-bottomed cargo transport vessel designed for canals, rivers and shallow waters with or without its own propulsion.
Synonym: → Lighter
Unlawful act or fraudulent breach of duty on the part of a master of a ship or of the mariners resulting in the injury of the owner of the ship or cargo.
Trade in which merchandise is exchanged directly for other merchandise without use of money.
Items of an inventory intended for issue against demand during the re-supply lead time.
→ Lead Time
Collection of products or data which is treated as one entity with respect to certain operations (e.g. processing and production).
Production process where products/components are produced in batches and where each separate batch consists of a number of the same products/components.
Vertical division of a container vessel from stem to stern, used to indicate stowage places for containers. The numbers run from stem to stern; odd numbers indicate a 20-foot position, even numbers indicate a 40-foot position.
→ Cell Position → Grid Number
Stowage plan which shows the locations of all the containers on the vessel.
→ Bulk Cargo Code → Segregation
Under-floor area of an aircraft.
→ Hold Space
Measurement and comparison against a standard, of efforts and results in the business process (e.g. input, output, reliability, quality and customer satisfaction).
Entity or person on whom a Letter of Credit has been opened or a draft has been drawn.
→ Assignment of Proceeds → Transferable Letter of Credit
Benefit of Insurance Clause
Clause by which the bailee of goods claims the benefit of any insurance policy effected by the cargo owner on the goods in care of the bailee. Such a clause in a contract of carriage issued in accordance with the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act is void at law.
Location in a port where a vessel can be moored, often indicated by a code or name.
→ Wharf → Quay → Pier
Commerce between two countries, usually in accordance with specific agreements.
Bilateral Transport Agreement
Agreement between two nations concerning transport relations.
Bill of Exchange
Bill of Lading
Abbreviation: B/L. Document that establishes the terms of a contract between a shipper and a transportation company under which freight is to be moved between specified points for a specified charge. Usually prepared by the shipper on forms issued by the carrier, it serves as a document of title, a contract of carriage, and a receipt for goods.
→ Air Waybill → Ocean Bill of Lading → Through Bill of Lading
Bill of Lading Clause
Particular article, stipulation or single provision in a Bill of Lading.
Bill of Material
List of all parts, sub-assemblies and raw materials that constitute a particular assembly, showing the quantity of each required item.
1. Road semi-trailer with retractable running gear to allow mounting on a pair of rail boogies.
Synonym: Road-Rail Trailer 2. Trailer which is able to carry different types of standardized unit loads (e.g. a chassis which is appropriate for the carriage of one FEU or two TEUs).
Complete train moving straight from origin station to destination station without marshalling or decoupling of wagons.
→ Double Stack Train
Member of the vessel’s crew.
Post, fixed on a quay to lash mooring ropes.
→ Container Bolster
In good faith; without dishonesty, fraud or deceit.
Shipments which are permitted to travel to inland destinations before customs clearance.
Bonded Transit Warehouse
Warehouse under customs control holding cargo in transit to further destination.
Warehouse authorized by customs authorities for storage of uncleared goods.
→ In Bond
Space reservation, conclusion of contract of carriage.
Synonym for Air Cargo: Reservation
Booking Reference Number
Number assigned to a certain booking by the carrier or its agent.
Special conical-shaped devices to avoid the container moving during the voyage.
Handling of containers with equipment attached to the four bottom corner fittings (castings).
Maximum value at risk per shipment/sending/aircraft.
Pallet with at least three fixed, removable or collapsible, vertical sides.
1. Physical discharge of unitized cargo. 2. Administration procedure of document splitting at destination.
Break Bulk Cargo
General cargo conventionally stowed as opposed to unitized, containerized and Roll-on/Roll-off cargo.
Synonym: → Conventional Cargo
Weight at which it is cheaper to charge the lower rate for the next higher weight-break multiplied by the minimum weight indicated, than to charge the higher rate for the actual weight of the shipment (air cargo).
Cargo space that is unavoidably lost when stowing cargo. The percentage of wasted space depends upon the kind of cargo, the packing and the used spaces.
Person who acts as an agent or intermediary in negotiating contracts.
Brussels Tariff Nomenclature
Abbreviation: BTN. Old Customs Cooperation Council Nomenclature for the classification of goods. Now replaced by the Harmonized System.
→ Harmonized System (HS)
British Standards Institution.
→ Brussels Tariff Nomenclature
Quantity of goods or articles kept in store to safeguard against unforeseen shortages or demands.
Unpacked cargo loaded directly into the vessel’s holds. Examples of commodities that can be shipped in bulk are ores, coal, scrap iron, grain, rice, vegetable oil, tallow, fuel oil, fertilizers and similar commodities.
Bulk Cargo Code
Abbreviation: BC Code. Safe working practice code for solid bulk cargo.
Single-deck vessel designed to carry homogeneous unpacked dry cargo such as grain, iron ore and coal.
Container designed for the carriage of free-flowing dry cargo, which are loaded through hatchways in the roof of the container and discharged through hatchways at one end of the container.
→ Bulk Cargo
Bulk Unitization Charge
Charge which applies to consignments carried from airport of departure to airport of arrival, entirely in Unit Load Devices (air cargo).
1. Upright partition dividing compartments on board a vessel. 2. A vertically mounted board to provide front wall protection against shifting cargo and commonly seen on platform trailers (road cargo). 3. Partition in a container, providing a plenum chamber and/or air passage for either return or supply air. 4. Vertically mounted wall separating the fore respectively aft compartment from the rest of the aircraft (air cargo).
Rings for lashing the cargo in containers.
Spaces on board a vessel to store fuel.
Bunker Adjustment Factor
Abbreviation: BAF. Adjustment applied by shipping lines or liner conferences to offset the effect of fluctuations in the cost of bunkers.
French classification society.
→ Cover Note
→ Carriage of Goods by Sea Act
→ Charter Party
Canceling (of policy) Returns Only
→ Constructive Total Loss
→ Country Damage
Additional abbreviation for CFR, “Cost and Freight”
1. Transport of goods between two ports or places located in the same country. 2. Transport of cargo in a country other than the country where the vehicle is registered (road cargo). 3. The carriage of a container from a surplus area to an area in which equipment is needed.
→ Cash against Documents
→ Currency Adjustment Factor
Visit of a vessel to a port.
Process of registering and steering of capacity.
Activities to maximize the amount of freight that is carried in the hold space of an aircraft.
Goods to be transported.
Cargo Accounts Settlement System
Abbreviation: CASS. System for automated account settlement between participating IATA airlines, billing participants and part participants, on the one hand and their appointed IATA cargo agents on the other hand (air cargo).
Any aircraft other than a passenger aircraft or a combi.
Separate reception of parcels or packages and the holding of them for later dispatch as one consignment.
Physical handling of goods.
→ Cargo Interchange Message Procedures
Cargo Interchange Message Procedures
Abbreviation: Cargo IMP. Procedures developed by the member airlines of the Air Transport Association of America (ATA) and the International Air Transport Association (IATA).
List including all particulars of consignments.
Cargo Restriction Code
Code indicating that the use of a certain container is restricted to particular cargo.
Information sent by the agent or airline to all relevant parties, stating that certain cargo is either missing or arrived in excess.
Customs document permitting the holder to carry or send merchandise temporarily into certain foreign countries (for display, demonstration or similar purposes) without completing normal customs formalities. With a carnet, the holder avoids paying duties or posting bonds.
Process of transporting (conveying) cargo, from one point to another.
Carriage and Insurance Paid to (... Named Place of Destination)
Abbreviation: CIP. Incoterm
Carriage of Goods by Sea Act
Abbreviation: C.O.G.S.A. 1936 U.S. Statute that governs the acts that a carrier is responsible for and defines the terms used in shipping. The act provides that the shipowner’s liability will be limited to $500 per shipping package, and it stipulates a one-year time limit for filing suit against the carrier. This act automatically applies to international ocean movements but not to domestic ocean transits unless the carrier agrees to be bound by it.
Carriage Paid to (... Named Place of Destination)
Abbreviation: CPT. Incoterm
Company that carries the cargo, e.g. shipping line, airline, trucking company, etc.
Inland transport service performed by the sea-carrier under the terms and conditions of the relevant transport document.
Right to retain the property as security for the payment of services, material, or money expended on that property. E.g.: When the shipper ships goods “collect”, the carrier has a possessory claim on these goods, which means that the carrier can retain possession of the goods as security for the charges due.
Required cargo temperature during transport and storage.
Cash Against Documents
Abbreviation: CAD. Payment condition which implies transfer of title at time of payment.
Cash in Advance
Abbreviation: CIA. Payment condition which implies up-front payment before transfer of title of goods.
Cash on Delivery
Abbreviation: COD. Payment condition which implies payment of goods at the time of physical transfer.
Cash with Order
Abbreviation: CWO. Payment condition which implies payment when order is placed.
Abbreviation for: → Cargo Accounts Settlement System.
Airline, fully participating in the CASS.
Closed Circuit Television.
Location on board of a container vessel where one container can be stowed.
Location of a cell on board of a container vessel identified by a code for, respectively, the bay, the row and the tier, indicating the exact position of a container on that vessel.
Steel bars and rails used to steer containers during loading and discharging whilst sliding in the ship.
Vessel, specially designed and equipped for the carriage of containers.
→ Council of European and Japanese National Ship-owners’ Associations
Center of Gravity
Point at which the entire weight of a body may be considered as concentrated so that if supported at this point the body would remain in equilibrium in any position.
Document by which a fact is formally or officially attested and in which special requirements and conditions can be stated.
Certificate of Analysis
Document, often required by an importer or government authorities, attesting to the quality or purity of commodities.
Certificate of Classification
Certificate, issued by the classification society, stating the class under which a vessel or an aircraft is registered.
Certificate of Free Sale
Certificate, required by some countries as evidence that the goods are normally sold on the open market and approved by the regulatory authorities in the country of origin.
Certificate of Inspection
Document confirming that cargo has been inspected by a competent authority (SGS, Bureau Veritas or any national authority) before dispatch.
Certificate of Insurance
Document presented by the insurance company or insured as evidence that insurance is in effect. The insured may assign their rights under this negotiable document to a third party, usually the consignee, by endorsing the reverse of the certificate.
Certificate of Manufacture
Statement (often notarized) in which a producer of goods certifies that manufacture has been completed and that the goods are now at the disposal of the buyer.
Certificate of Origin
Statement signed by the exporter, or its agent, and attested to by a local Chamber of Commerce, indicating that the goods being shipped, or a major percentage of them, originated and were produced in the exporter’s country.
Incoterm for “Cost and Freight (... named port of destination)”
→ Container Freight Station
Separate, identifiable element of charges to be used in the pricing/rating of common services rendered to customers.
→ Charter Party
Written contract, usually on a special form, between the owner of a vessel and a “charterer” who rents use of the vessel or a part of its freight space. The contract generally includes the freight rates and the ports involved in the transportation.
Synonym for Airfreight: Charter Contract;
Person who has signed a charter party with the owner of a vessel or an aircraft and thus hires or leases the same vessel or aircraft or a part of the capacity thereof on a legal basis.
→ Cash in Advance
Incoterm for “Cost, Insurance and Freight (... named port of destination)”
CIF and C
Cost, Insurance, Freight and Commission.
→ Convention Internationale Concernant le Transport des Marchandises par Chemin de Fer
Incoterm for “Carriage and Insurance Paid to
(... named place of destination) ”
City Terminal Service
Shuttle service between city and airport.
Rate applicable to a specifically designated class of goods (air cargo).
Arrangement according to a systematic division of a number of objects into groups, based on some likeness or some common traits.
Organization, whose main function is to carry out surveys of vessels, its purpose being to set and maintain standards of construction and upkeep for vessels, their engines and their safety equipment. A classification society also inspects and approves the construction of shipping containers.
Clean Bill of Lading
Receipt for goods issued by a shipping line that indicates that the goods were received in “apparent good order and condition”, without damage or other irregularities.
Clean Draft (Bill of Exchange)
Draft with no accompanying documents.
Clean on Board
When goods are loaded on board and the document issued in respect to these goods is clean. Note: Through the usage of the UCP 500 rules the term has now become superfluous.
Cleared without Examination
Abbreviation: CWE. Cleared by customs without inspection.
Terminal where customs facilities for the clearance of goods are available.
Clip on Unit
Abbreviation: COU. Detachable aggregate for a temperature controlled container (Conair).
Closed Ventilated Container
Container of a closed type, similar to a general-purpose container, but specially designed for carriage of cargo where ventilation, either natural or mechanical (forced), is necessary.
→ Container Load Plan
→ Convention Relative au Contrat de Transport International de Marchandises par Route
Where two or more parties share the same risk. A co-insurer is not obliged to follow the decision of another co-insurer, except where they have given authority for the other party to act on their behalf. Each co-insurance is a separate contract with the insured.
Combination of cargo from another shipper or carrier, having the same final destination as the cargo base load.
→ Cash on Delivery
Empty space on board of a vessel between two bulkheads or two decks separating oil tanks from each other and/or the engine room or other compartments.
Container which can be easily folded, disassembled and reassembled.
Freight which is payable to the carrier when the merchandise arrives at the port of discharge named in the Bill of Lading.
Bank to which a remitting bank sends draft for collection.
All documents (Commercial invoices, Bills of Lading, etc.) submitted to a buyer for the purpose of receiving payment for a shipment.
Physical impact between two or more vehicles. In collision liability insurance, the term does not include contact of the insured vessel with anything other than a ship or vessel.
Aircraft, carrying passengers and cargo upper deck.
Chassis which can carry either one 40-foot or two
Combination Joint Rate
Joint rate which is obtained by combining two or more published rates (air cargo).
Intermodal transport where the major part of the journey is by one mode and any initial and/or final leg carried out by another mode.
→ Combined Transport Document
Combined Transport Document
Abbreviation: CTD. Negotiable or non-negotiable document evidencing a contract for the performance of combined transport of goods.
Combined Transport Operator
Abbreviation: CTO. Party that undertakes to carry goods with different modes of transport.
Document issued by the seller to the buyer, which gives detail of merchandise sold, number of units being shipped, per unit cost and the terms of sale.
Set of four “negotiable” documents that represents and takes the place of the goods themselves in the financing of the cargo sales transaction.
Indication of the type of goods. Commodities are coded according to the harmonized system.
Commodity Box Rate
Rate classified by commodity and quoted per container.
Code used in the Harmonized System for the classification of goods which are most commonly produced and traded.
Commodity Item Number
Specific description number required in air transport to indicate that a specific freight rate applies.
Transporter that provides its services to the general public for the transportation of goods over a definite route and according to a regular schedule.
Compromised Total Loss
Arranged settlement on a hull policy where there is no claim for actual or constructive total loss, but where it is impractical to repair the vessel.
Thermal container served by an external cooling system (e.g. a vessel’s cooling system or a Clip on Unit), which regulates the temperature of the cargo. Note: Conair is a brand name.
→ Clip on Unit
Conditions of Carriage
General terms and conditions established by a carrier in respect of the carriage.
Conditions of Contract
Terms and conditions of a transportation contract.
Devices for facilitating the loading, positioning and lashing of containers. The cones insert into the bottom castings of the container.
Confirmed Letter of Credit
Letter of Credit, issued by a foreign bank, with validity confirmed by a bank of origin. A seller that requires a confirmed Letter of Credit from the buyer is assured of payment by the origin bank even if the foreign buyer or the foreign bank defaults.
Carrier to whose services the cargo is to be transferred for onward connecting transport.
Connecting Road Haulage
Party, mentioned in the transport document, by whom the goods, cargo or containers are to be received.
Separate identifiable number of goods to be transported from one shipper to one consignee.
Document prepared by the shipper and comprising a transport contract. It contains details of the consignment to be carried to the port of loading and it is signed by the inland carrier as proof of receipt.
Stock of goods with an external party (customer) which is still the property of the supplier. Payment for these goods is made to the supplier at the moment when they are sold.
Container filled with several shipments from different shippers for delivery to one or more consignees.
Grouping together of smaller consignments of goods into a large consignment for carriage as a larger unit in order to obtain a reduced rate.
→ Cargo Assembly → Consolidation Point
Location where consolidation of consignments takes place.
Firm or company which consolidates cargo.
Constructive Total Loss
Position which exists when the cost of repairing or recovering lost or damaged property plus the value of the salvage would exceed the property’s value when repaired or recovered.
→ Compromised Total Loss
Formal statement, made by the consulate of a foreign country.
Bills of Lading, certificates of origin or special invoice forms that are officially legalized by the consul of the country of destination.
Document, required by some foreign countries, describing a shipment of goods and showing information such as the shipper, consignee, and value of the shipment. Certified by a consular official of the foreign country, it is used by the country’s customs officials to verify the value, quantity, and nature of the shipment.
Item of equipment as defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) for transport purposes. It must be of: a) a permanent character and accordingly strong enough to be suitable for repeated use; b) specially designed to facilitate the carriage of goods, by one or more modes of transport without intermediate reloading; c) fitted with devices permitting its ready handling, particularly from one mode of transport to another; d) so designed as to be easy to fill and empty; e) having an internal volume of 1 m3 or more. The term container includes neither vehicles nor conventional packing.
Synonym: Freight Container
Container floor without sides or end walls which does not have the ISO corner fittings and is generally used for Ro/Ro operations. Note: A bolster cannot be handled either full or empty by a container spreader without special fittings.
Vehicle specially built for the purpose of transporting containers.
Container Check Digit
7th digit of the serial number of a container used to check whether prefix and serial number are correct.
Storage area for empty containers.
Container Freight Station
Abbreviation: CFS. Term CFS at loading ports refers to the location designated by carriers for the receiving of cargo to be packed into containers by the carrier. At discharge ports, the term CFS refers to the location designated by carriers in the port area for unpacking and delivery of cargo.
Contract by which the owner of containers (leasing company, lessor) gives the use of containers to a shipping line or other lessee for a specified period of time.
Container Load Plan
List of items loaded in a specific container and where appropriate, their sequence of loading.
→ Container Manifest
Controlling and positioning of containers.
Document specifying the contents of particular freight containers or other transport units, prepared by the party responsible for their loading into the container or unit.
Synonym: → Container Load Plan
Identification number of a container consisting of prefix and serial number and check digit (e.g. KNLU 123456-7).
→ Container Serial Number → Container Prefix
Container floor without sides or end walls which can be loaded by spreader directly and is generally used for off-size cargo.
Certain stock of containers which is jointly used by several container carriers and/or leasing companies.
Four-letter code that forms the first part of a container identification number indicating the owner of a container.
Container Safety Convention
Abbreviation: CSC. International convention for safe containers.
Container Serial Number
Seven digit serial number (6 plus 1 Check Digit) that forms the second part of a container identification number.
Container Service Charges
Charges to be paid by cargo interests as per local port tariffs.
Container Size / Type
Description of the size and type of a freight container or similar unit load device as specified in ISO 6346.
Container Size Code
Two digit indication of the nominal length and nominal height of a container.
Two or more containers, one placed above the other forming a vertical column.
Contract by which a carrier gives the use of containers to another carrier for a specified period of time and for a fixed payment.
Place where loaded and/or empty containers are stored awaiting dispatch or pick up.
Container Type Code
Two digits, the first of which indicates the category and the second of which indicates certain physical characteristics or other attributes of a container.
Abbreviation: CY. Facility at which containers are received from or delivered to the merchant by or on behalf of the carrier.
Synonym: Marshalling Yard
Indication that goods have been stowed in a container.
Secondary insurance coverage which will protect the insured’s financial interest if the primary insurance cover effected by others does not respond for a covered loss (Seller’s Insurance).
Goods forbidden by national law to be imported or exported.
Agreement enforceable by law, between two or more parties stipulating their rights and obligations.
Contracting out of all the warehousing, transport and distribution activities or a part thereof by manufacturing companies.
Contract of Affreightment
The contractual carrier (called NVO, Non Vessel Operator or NVOC, Non Vessel Operating Carrier) is a party which contracts carriage of goods for the account of the Merchants and fulfills its commitment by using the services of a carrier (sometimes referred to as the “actual” carrier).
Contractual Port of Loading
Port at which an ocean vessel does not call, but which is equalized with the actual port of call and upon which inland haulage services and inland tariffs are based. Note: Generally speaking it is seen as the port mentioned on the B/L from which cargo is accepted (e.g. delivered by the consignee for sea transport).
Synonym: Commercial POL/POD
This relates to situations where more than one party covers the risk. Each party is deemed to be liable for its portion of the loss. If the insured has recovered in full from one insurer, that insurer is entitled to recover from the other insurer that part of the loss which should have been paid by the latter. The term, as used in marine insurance, also applies to contributions paid by the insured in connection with salvage and/or General Average.
→ Contributory Value
Value of property saved as a result of a General Average Act which forms the basis for determining each party’s contribution in General Average.
Convention Internationale Concernant le Transport des Marchandises par Chemin de Fer
Abbreviation: CIM. International agreement, applied by 19 European railway companies, setting out conditions for international railway transport of goods and the liabilities of the carrier.
Convention Relative au Contrat de Transport International de Marchandise par Route
Abbreviation: CMR. Convention for the international carriage of goods by road, setting out the conditions of carriage and the liabilities of the carrier. Note: Adherence to this set of regulations reflects a desire to standardize items such as documentation and rules on the carriers liability.
Currency that can be bought and sold for other currencies at free- trade.
Auxiliary undercarriage assembly consisting of a chassis, fifth wheel and tow-bar used to convert a semi-trailer or a container chassis to a full trailer.
Transport of goods from one place to another.
Mechanical device in the form of a continuous belt used for transporting cargo.
Combination of individual skills and use of technologies that underlay the various products and/or services of a business.
Fittings located at the corners of containers providing means of supporting, stacking, handling and securing the container.
Synonym: Corner Casting
Vertical structural member at either side of an “end frame” of a container joining a top and a bottom corner fitting (and thereby forming a “corner structure”).
Bank that, in its own country, handles the business of a foreign bank.
Cost and Freight (… Named Port of Destination)
Abbreviation: CFR. Incoterm
Cost, Insurance and Freight (… Named Port of Destination)
Abbreviation: CIF. Incoterm
→ Clip on Unit
Council of European and Japanese National Shipowners’ Associations
Abbreviation: CENSA. Main objectives of this organization are to promote and protect sound shipping policies in all sectors of shipping, to coordinate and present the views of its members and to exchange views with other shipowner groups.
Count Bill of Lading
Bill of Lading which shows the actual number of units being shipped.
Sale of goods or services that are paid for in whole or in part by the transfer of goods or services from a foreign country.
Damage caused by dirt, mud, etc., to commodities before they are shipped.
Country of Departure
Country from which a certain means of transport is scheduled to depart or has departed.
Country of Dispatch
Country from which the goods are shipped.
→ Country of Origin
Country of Origin
Country where the merchandise was grown, mined, or manufactured. In instances where the country of origin cannot be determined, transactions are credited to the country of dispatch.
→ Country of Dispatch
Country of Provenance
Country of origin of goods or cargo being sent to the importing country.
Non-negotiable document evidencing insurance which may or may not indicate the terms of cover.
Incoterm for “Carriage Paid to (... named place of destination) ”.
Machine designed for moving and lifting weight by means of a movable projecting arm or a horizontal beam which is able to travel over a certain distance.
Credit Risk Insurance
Insurance designed to cover risks of nonpayment for delivered goods.
Any person actually employed for duties on board during a voyage in the working or service of a ship and included in the crew list (IMO).
1. Used in shipping for the services of a vessel between nations other than the nation in which the vessel is registered. 2. Term used in the freight forwarding industry for the transportation services between nations other than the nation in which the cargo’s principle is domiciled (UNCTAD).
→ Container Safety Convention
→ Combined Transport Document
→ Combined Transport Operator
Medium of exchange of value, defined by reference to the geographic location of the authorities responsible for it (ISO 4217). In general, the monetary unit is represented by a name or a symbol.
Currency Adjustment Factor
Abbreviation: CAF. Adjustment applied by shipping lines or liner conferences on freight rates to offset losses or gains for carriers resulting from fluctuations in exchange rates of tariff currencies.
Customer Pick Up
Cargo picked up by a customer at a warehouse.
Customer Service Level
Performance measure of customer service. Note: Generally this is seen as the degree with which customer orders can be executed, in accordance with the terms which are generally accepted in the market.
Individual or firm licensed to enter and clear goods through customs.
Authorities designated to collect duties levied by a country on imports and exports. The term also applies to the procedures involved in such collection.
Authorized agent specialized in customs clearance procedures on account of importers/exporters.
→ Customs Clearance Agent
Customs Clearance Agent
Customs broker or other agent of the consignee designated to perform customs clearance services for the consignee.
→ Customs Broker
Customs Entry Form
Form required by customs authorities for merchandise entering the country. It indicates the country of origin, description of merchandise and the amount of estimated duty to be paid before merchandise is released.
Document required by customs in an importing country in which the seller states the price (e.g. selling price, price of identical goods), and specifies costs for freight, insurance and packing, etc., terms of delivery and payment. This is for the purpose of determining the customs value in the importing country of goods consigned to that country.
Worth of an item or group of items expressed in a monetary amount, within a consignment declared to customs for duty and statistical reasons.
→ Customs Invoice
Last point before a flight departs at which freight will be accepted to travel on that flight.
→ Cleared without Examination
→ Cash with Order
→ Container Yard
That portion of stock available or planned to be available in a given period for normal demand, excluding excess stock and safety stock.
→ Documents against Acceptance
→ Documents against Payment
Incoterm for “Delivered at Frontier (... named place)”.
Form on which physical damage of a consignment or transportation unit (e.g. container) is recorded.
Damaged Cargo Report
Written statement concerning established damages to cargo and/or equipment.
Goods are to be considered dangerous if the transport of such goods might cause harm, risk, peril, or other evil to people, environment, equipment or any property whatsoever.
→ Dangerous Goods Packing Certificate
Dangerous Goods Declaration
Document issued by a shipper in accordance with applicable conventions or regulations, describing hazardous goods or materials for transport purposes, and stating that the latter have been packed and labeled in accordance with the provisions of the relevant conventions or regulations.
Dangerous Goods Packing Certificate
Document as part of the dangerous goods declaration in which the responsible party declares that the cargo has been stowed in accordance with the rules in a clean container in compliance with the IMDG regulations and has been properly secured.
Metal identification plate affixed to a container which displays, among other things, the gross and tare weights and external dimensions.
Date Draft (Bill of Exchange)
Draft that matures in a specified number of days after the date it is issued, without regard to the date of acceptance.
Incoterm for “Delivered Duty Paid (... named place of destination) ”.
Incoterm for “Delivered Duty Unpaid (... named place of destination) ”.
Difference between the actual and calculated ship’s draft.
Abbreviation: DWT. Total weight of cargo, cargo equipment, bunkers, provisions, water, stores and spare parts which a vessel can lift when loaded to her maximum draft as applicable under the circumstances. The deadweight is expressed in tons.
Any extended horizontal structure in a vessel or an aircraft, serving as a floor and structural support, covering, partially or fully, a portion of the vessel or aircraft.
Cargo carried outside on deck of a vessel.
Declaration of Origin
Appropriate statement as to the origin of the goods, made in connection with their exportation by the manufacturer, producer, supplier, exporter or other competent person on the commercial invoice or any document relating to goods.
Declared Value for Carriage
Value of the goods declared to the carrier by the shipper for the purpose of determining charges or of establishing the limit of the carrier’s liability for loss, damage or delay. It is also the basis for possible applicable valuation charges (air cargo).
Specific dollar amount, or percentage of the insured value, which will be deducted from all losses recoverable under a policy.
Tank fitted and equipped for the carriage of vegetable oil (e.g. palm oil and coconut oil) and other liquids in bulk.
Charge applicable for a trade, stretch or location. In the absence of specifics (not otherwise specified/enumerated) a general amount has been set.
Deferred Payment Credit
Type of Letter of Credit providing for payment some time after presentation of shipping documents by seller.
Splitting up shipments into small consignments.
Even under All Risk cover, damage due to delay is not recoverable. Most underwriters have inserted a “Delay Clause” in the Open Cargo Policy, which states specifically that damage caused by delay is not recoverable even if the delay was due to a peril insured against.
Delivered at Frontier (… Named Place)
Abbreviation: DAF. Incoterm
Delivered Duty Paid (… Named Place of Destination)
Abbreviation: DDP. Incoterm
Delivered Duty Unpaid (… Named Place of Destination)
Abbreviation: DDU. Incoterm
Delivered Ex Quay (… Named Port of Destination)
Abbreviation: DEQ. Incoterm
Delivered Ex Ship (… Named Port of Destination)
Abbreviation: DES. Incoterm
Carrier that delivers the consignment to the consignee or its agent.
Process of delivering the consignment to the consignee at the agreed place.
Document giving instructions regarding the details of the delivery of the shipment.
A document issued by or on behalf of the carrier authorizing the release of import cargo identified thereon and manifested under a single Bill of Lading (shipping). 2. The authorization of the entitled party for the shipment to a party other than the consignee shown on the Air Waybill.
Party to which goods are to be delivered.
Time between order and delivery.
Demand Draft (Bill of Exchange)
Contract whereby the shipowner leases its vessel to the charterer for a period of time during which the whole use and management of the vessel passes to the charterer. This involves the charterer paying all expenses for the operation and maintenance of the vessel. Officers and crew become servants of the charterer. A demise charter whereby the charterer has the right to place its own master and crew on board of the vessel is also called “bareboat charter”.
A variable fee charged to carriers and/or customers for the use of Unit Load Devices (ULD’s) owned by a carrier beyond the free time of shipment (air cargo). 2. Additional charge imposed for exceeding the free time which is included in the rate and allowed for the use of a certain equipment at the terminal.
Density of Commodity
Mass of a commodity to its volume.
Place designated by the carrier where empty containers are kept in stock and received from or delivered to the container operators or merchants.
Incoterm for “Delivered Ex Quay (... named port of destination)”.
Lifting equipment on board a conventional vessel for loading and discharging cargo, consisting of a post attached to the deck and an inclined spar.
Incoterm for “Delivered Ex Ship (... named port of destination) ”.
Place for which goods or a vehicle is bound. 2. The ultimate stopping place according to the contract of carriage.
A document reporting the destuffing of a container indicating time and place as well as responsible peron and any damage.
Det Norske Veritas
Norwegian classification society.
Keeping equipment beyond the time allowed.
Charges levied on usage of equipment exceeding free time period as stipulated in the pertinent inland rules and conditions.
Downgrading of a product due to long storage, damage due to packing or other external influences.
Official lowering of the value of one country’s currency in terms of one or more foreign currencies. (E.g., if the U.S. dollar is devalued in relation to the French franc, one dollar will “buy” fewer francs than before.)
Deviation from a Route
Divergence from the agreed or customary route.
Measurements in length, width and height, regarding cargo.
Condition which requires the insured voyage to be direct from one place to another. If the voyage is delayed en route or if there is a deviation from the direct route, the insurance cover continues subject to payment of an additional premium, but only if the assured gives prompt notice of the delay or deviation immediately on receipt of advice, unless the policy provides otherwise.
1. The conveyance of goods directly from the vendor to the buyer. Frequently used if a third party acts as intermediary agent between vendor and buyer. 2. Direct discharge from vessel onto railroad car, road vehicle or barge with the purpose of immediate transport from the port area.
Shortest operated route between two points.
Sums paid out by a ship’s agent at a port and recovered from the carrier.
1. Unloading of a vehicle, a vessel or an aircraft.
2. Landing of cargo.
A statement in which a company or individual says that they are not responsible for something.
Duty of the insured and their broker to tell the underwriter every material circumstance before acceptance of the risk.
Difference between the particulars given and the particulars found.
Discrepancy Letter of Credit
When documents presented do not conform to the Letter of Credit, it is referred to as a “discrepancy”.
Process of sending goods.
Synonym: → Despatch; → Dispatch Advice
Information sent by shipper to the consignee informing that specified goods have been sent or are ready to be sent advising the detailed contents of the consignment.
Synonym: → Dispatch Note
Dispatch Note (for Post Parcels)
Document which, according to the agreement concerning postal parcels, is to accompany post parcels.
Weight of the quantity of water displaced by the vessel. The displacement of the vessel on her light draft represents the weight of the vessel ready for use including stores, etc.
Weight of the quantity of water displaced by the vessel. The displacement of the vessel on her light draft represents the weight of the vessel ready for use including stores, etc.
Pallet intended to be discarded after a single cycle of use.
All activities relating to the inland movement of empty and/or full containers.
Set of activities which ensure the availability of goods in the desired quality, quantity, place and time for the customer.
Warehouse for the receipt, the storage and the dispersal of goods among customers.
Synonym: Branch Warehouse
Route by which a company distributes goods.
Vertically mounted partition in a compartment on board of an aircraft (air cargo).
Form issued by a carrier or its representative as evidence that merchandise was in fact received by the carrier for shipment. Often referred to as a Received for Shipment Bill of Lading.
Commercial Letter of Credit providing for payment by a bank to the name beneficiary, usually the seller of merchandise, against delivery of documents specified in the credit.
Draft to which documents are attached.
Documents against Acceptance
Abbreviation: D/A. Instructions given by a shipper to a bank indicating that documents transferring title to goods should be delivered to the buyer (or drawee) only upon the buyer’s acceptance of an attached draft.
Documents against Payment
Abbreviation: D/P. Instructions a shipper gives to its bank that the documents attached to a draft for collection are deliverable to the drawee only against their payment of the draft.
Carriage whereby the place of departure and the place of destination are situated within one country (air cargo).
Rate applicable within a country, and in most cases subject to special conditions other than those of IATA (air cargo).
Double Stack Train
Railway wagons on which containers can be stacked two-high.
Flat pallet with a top and bottom deck.
Period of time when a machine is not available for production due to a functional failure or maintenance.
Draft of a vessel is the vertical distance between the waterline and the underside of the keel of the vessel. During the construction of a vessel the marks showing the draft are welded on each side of the vessel near the stem, the stern and amidships.
Synonym: → Draught
Draft (or Bill of Exchange)
Unconditional order in writing from one person (the drawer) to another (the drawee), directing the drawee to pay a specified amount to a named drawer at a fixed or determinable future date.
→ Date Draft
Repayment of any part of customs or excise duties previously collected on imported goods, when those goods are exported again.
Individual or firm on whom a draft is drawn and who owes the stated amount.
→ Draft → Drawer
Individual or firm that issues or signs a draft and thus stands to receive payment of the stated amount from the drawee.
→ Draft → Drawee
1. The hauling of a load by a cart with detachable sides (dray). 2. Road transportation between the nearest railway terminal and the stuffing place.
Charge made by terminal operators for delivery of a container into depot stock. The drop-off charge may be a combination of actual handling and storage charges with surcharges.
Dry Bulk Container
Container consisting of a cargo-carrying structure, firmly secured within a framework, for the carriage of dry solids in bulk without packaging. Containers of this type have type codes 80 and 81.
Dry Cargo Container
Shipping container which is designed for the carriage of goods other than liquids.
The care that a prudent person might be expected to exercise in the examination and evaluation of risks affecting a business transaction.
Stowage material, mainly timber or board, used to prevent damage to cargo during carriage.
Pressure that is used to make a company or an individual do something which they do not want to do.
1. Ad valorem duty means an assessed amount at a certain percentage rate on the monetary value of an import. 2. Specific duty: an assessment on the weight or quantity of an article without preference to its monetary value or market price. 3. Drawback: a recovery in whole or in part of duty paid on imported merchandise at the time of exportation, in the same or different form.
Duty Free Zone
Area where goods or cargo can be stored without paying import customs duties awaiting further transport or manufacturing.
Duty Free Zone
Area where goods or cargo can be stored without paying import customs duties awaiting further transport or manufacturing.
→ European Article Numbering Association
That speed of a means of transport which produces the best possible financial result for the owner. Such speed should not be in excess of the maximum or minimum output allowed for the engine(s).
Economy of Scale
Phenomenon which encourages the production of larger volumes of a commodity to reduce its unit cost by distributing fixed costs over a greater quantity.
Europe Combined Terminals (Rotterdam).
→ Electronic Data Interchange
→ Electronic Data Processing
→ Equipment Damage Report
Eight Freedoms (Air)
Freedom 1: The right to fly and carry traffic over the territory of the grantor state.
Freedom 2: The right to fly and carry traffic over the grantor state and to make one or more stops for non-traffic purposes (e.g. refueling).
Freedom 3: The right to fly into the territory of the grantor state and set down traffic from the state of the carrier.
Freedom 4: The right to fly into the territory of the grantor state and take on traffic for the state of the carrier.
Freedom 5: The right to fly into the territory of the grantor state and take on or set down traffic to or from third states.
Freedom 6: The right to fly into the territory of the grantor state and take on or set down traffic for the carrier’s state. Such traffic being carried to a third state on a different service.
Freedom 7: The right for a flag-carrier operating entirely outside the territory of this own state to take on or set down traffic in the grantor state for carriage to or from a third state.
Freedom 8: The right of a carrier of another state to take (cabotage) on or set down traffic from one point in the territory of the grantor state to another point within the same state.
→ Equipment Interchange Receipt
Electronic Data Interchange
Abbreviation: EDI. Transfer of structured data, by agreed standards from applications on the computer of one party to the applications on the computer of another party by electronic means.
Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport
Abbreviation: EDIFACT. ISO application level syntax rules for the structuring of user data and of the associated service data in the interchange of messages in an open environment.
Electronic Data Processing
Abbreviation: EDP. Computerized handling of information (e.g. business data).
Equipment used to discharge some bulk cargoes such as grain which is removed from the hold by a continuous line of buckets or by suction and carried on a conveyor belt to store.
Draft which meets requirements for discounting at a Federal Reserve Bank.
1. A government order prohibiting the entry or departure of commercial vessels or goods at its ports. 2. The refusal by a carrier, for a limited period, to accept for transport over any route or segment thereof, and to or from any area or point, of a connecting carrier, any commodity, type of class of cargo duly tendered.
Transfer of the right to obtain delivery of the goods of the carrier by means of the consignee’s signature on the reverse side of a Bill of Lading. If the name of the new consignee (transferee) is not stated, the endorsement is an open one which means that every holder of the document is entitled to obtain delivery of the goods.
Enhanced Remote Transit Shed
Abbreviation: ERTS. Term used in the UK: Warehouse where agents can transfer incoming groupage/consolidations for customs clearance purposes.
Equipment Damage Report
Abbreviation: EDR. Written statement concerning damage to equipment, based on a physical inspection.
Equipment Interchange Receipt
Abbreviation: EIR. Physical inspection and transfer receipt.
Equipment Interchange Receipt
Abbreviation: EIR. Physical inspection and transfer receipt.
→ Enhanced Remote Transit Shed
Estimated Time of Arrival
Abbreviation: ETA. Expected date and time of arrival in a certain (air)port.
Synonym: Expected Time of Arrival
Estimated Time of Departure
Abbreviation: ETD. Expected date and time when a certain (air)port is left.
Synonym: Expected Time of Departure
→ Estimated Time of Arrival
→ Estimated Time of Departure
European Article Numbering Association
Abbreviation: EAN. International body responsible for administering the European Article Numbering system. It has affiliates in many countries such as: CCG in Germany, DCC in Japan, ANA in the United Kingdom. Note: The North American body responsible for the Uniform Product Code (UPC) coding is the Uniform Code Council (UPC is considered a subset of EAN).
European Pallet Pool
Pool for the exchange of standard-sized pallets (the so-called Europallets) in European cargo traffic, formed in 1961 by a number of European rail administrators.
European Zone Charge
Abbreviation: EZC. Charge for inland haulage transport in case of carrier haulage in Europe.
When used in pricing terms such as “Ex Factory” or “Ex Dock”, it signifies that the price quoted applies only at the point of origin (e.g., at the seller’s factory or a dock at the import point). In practice, this kind of quotation indicates that the seller agrees to place the goods at the disposal of the buyer at the specified place within a fixed period of time.
Seller owns goods until they are unloaded on dock at port of discharge; selling price includes all costs so far plus cost of unloading from vessel.
Seller owns goods until they are picked up at their factory; selling price is the cost of the goods.
Ex Quay means that the seller makes the goods available to the buyer on the quay (wharf) at the place named in the sales contract. The seller has to bear the full cost and risk involved in bringing the goods there. There are two “Ex Quay” contracts in use: a) Ex Quay “duty paid” and b) Ex Quay “duties on buyer’s account” in which the liability to clear goods for import is to be met by the buyer instead of by the seller.
Ex Works (... Named Place)
Abbreviation: EXW. Incoterm
→ Exemption Clause
That portion of stock on hand which is over and above the desired stock level.
Government permit required to convert local currency into foreign (hard) money for transfer abroad.
Price of one currency in terms of another.
Actual act of carrying out a task.
Clause in a contract, which relieves the contractor’s responsibility for mentioned events.
Synonym: → Exceptions Clause
Termination of a certain period.
Sending goods to another country or countries. The sale of products to clients abroad.
Individual or company that brings together buyers and sellers for a fee but does not take part as principal in actual sales transactions.
Export Commission House
Organization which, for a commission, acts as a purchasing agent for a foreign buyer.
Form indicating the value, weight, destination, and other basic information about an export shipment.
Government document that permits the licensee to export designated goods.
Company that packs goods for export.
Party responsible for the export of goods.
Summary or copy of something written, e.g. used in connection with the log book.
Incoterm for “Ex Works“.
→ European Zone Charge
Facilitation Committee of the IMO.
F.C. & S.
Free of Capture & Seizure. Clause excluding war risks from the Marine Policy. War risks can be covered by issuing a separate War Policy with an additional premium being charged.
→ Free in
Full Interest Admitted as between insurer and insured (honor policy).
→ Free out
Free of Claim for Accident Reported.
Free of Damage Absolutely.
Free on Rail.
Free on Train or Truck.
Free of Particular Average.
→ Free of Particular Average, English Conditions → Free of Particular Average, American Conditions
→ Free of Particular Average, American Conditions
Free of Particular Average Absolutely.
→ Free of Particular Average, English Conditions
Free of Particular Average Unless Caused by (stranding, etc.).
Full Premium If Lost (used in connection with time risks for periods of less than twelve months, the balance of a year’s premium being claimable by insurers before paying a total loss).
Fresh Water Damage.
Navigable channel for vessels, often the regular or prescribed track a vessel will follow in order to avoid dangerous circumstances such as shallow waters.
→ Freight All Kinds
Incoterm for “Free Alongside Ship”.
Transport of clothing and/or accessories including shoes, belts and handbags in dedicated means of transport.
Incoterm for “Free Carrier”.
→ Fully Cellular Containership
Foreign Credit Insurance Association.
→ Full Container Load
FIATA Forwarder’s Certificate of Receipt. An official document which proves that the freight has been received by the forwarder.
Vessel used for local or coastal transport to and from ports not scheduled by the main (ocean) vessel.
Appliance made of rubber, timber and/or rope or other materials normally attached to a dock or quay used to prevent damage to the hull of a vessel especially during mooring and un-mooring operations.
→ Forty Foot Equivalent Unit
→ First in/First out
→ Free in Liner out
→ Free in and out
Carrier that actually performs the first part of the air transport (air cargo).
First in/First out
Abbreviation: FIFO. Method whereby the goods which have been longest in stock (first in) are used, delivered (sold) and/or consumed first (first out).
Five Freedoms (Air)
Collective term which depicts the five areas of “rights” for the air transportation of passengers or cargo, viz. (expressed in terms of an airline of country A):
Freedom 1: The right to fly over a foreign country.
Freedom 2: The right to make a technical stop at a country C en route from country A to B.
Freedom 3: The right to set down (off loading) passengers or cargo in a country B from home country A.
Freedom 4: The right to pick up (loading) passengers/cargo from a country B to home country A.
Freedom 5: The right to carry passengers or cargo between two foreign countries.
Indication of the country in which a means of transport is registered through a reference to the ensign of this country.
Capable of being set on fire under given circumstances (Amendment 25 IMO DGS).
→ Flash Point
Lowest temperature at which a good produces enough vapor to form a flammable mixture with air.
→ Flat-Rack Container >Flat-Bed Trailer
Garments packed in cardboard boxes.
Wheeled trailer or a semi-trailer with a flat cargo carrying surface or deck and without any superstructure.
Container with two end walls, open sides and no roof.
Synonym: → Flat
Any group of means of transport acting together or under one control.
Combination of two letters, indicating the airline, and digits indicating the number of the voyage.
Crane mounted on a barge or pontoon, which can be towed or is self propelled.
Floating structure which can be partially submerged to enable vessels to enter and to leave and which can be raised for use as a dry dock.
Diagram, using symbols and depicting the sequence of events that should take place in a complex set of tasks.
Term often used to describe a specific production control system.
Direction of flow in which, e.g., pallets have been positioned and stowed.
Flow of Materials
Flow of materials and components which goes to and through the factory for the production process.
Federal Maritime Commission (Control of shipping acts USA).
Incoterm for “Free on Board”.
(Free on board vessel.) Seller owns goods until they are loaded on vessel; selling price includes all costs so far plus cost of loading on vessel.
→ Free on Rail
Title of a standard clause in marine contracts exempting the parties for non-fulfillment of their obligations as a result of conditions beyond their control, such as earthquakes, floods, or war.
Fore and Aft Stowage
Stowage from the bow to the stern (lengthwise), as opposed to stowage athwartships.
1. An estimation or calculation in advance; a prediction. 2. The amount of cargo expected to be booked for a specific flight or vessel. 3. The number of containers expected to be used in a certain area.
Abbreviation: Fo’c’s’le. Forward part of a vessel where stores, ropes and anchor chains are located.
Currency or credit instruments of a foreign country. Also, transactions involving purchase and/or sale of currencies.
Foreign Trade Zone
→ Free Trade Zone
Fork Lift Pockets
→ Fork Pockets
Fork Lift Truck
Three- or four-wheeled mechanical truck with forks at the front designed for lifting, carrying and stacking cargo.
Openings or recesses in a side of a container for the entry of the forks of a fork lift truck.
Synonym: → Fork Lift Pockets
Forty-foot Equivalent Unit
Abbreviation: FEU. Unit of measurement equivalent to one forty-feet shipping container.
At, near or towards the bow or front of a vessel or an aircraft.
Party arranging the carriage of goods including connected services and/or associated formalities on behalf of the cargo principal according to their shipping instructions.
Synonym: → Freight Forwarder
→ Free on Truck
Foul Bill of Lading
Receipt for goods issued by a carrier with an indication that the goods were damaged when received.
Pallet of which the frame permits the entry of forks of e.g. a fork lift truck, on all four sides.
Easily breakable. Term denoting that goods should be handled with care.
Unit of value in which the limitation of the carrier’s liability is sometimes expressed. One franc poincaré consists of 65.5 milligrams of gold with a fineness of nine hundred thousands.
Amount which, in case of damage, will have to be borne by the insured.
The crime of getting money or other benefits by deceit or trickery.
→ Free Trade Zone
Free Alongside Ship (… Named Port of Shipment)
Abbreviation: FAS. Incoterm
Free Carrier (... Named Place)
Abbreviation: FCA. Incoterm
Free House Uncleared
Delivered at a certain destination without payment of certain duties or incurred costs.
Abbreviation: F.I. Condition indicating that the charterer of a vessel is responsible for the cost of loading goods onto the vessel.
Free in and out
Abbreviation: FIO. Condition denoting that the freight rate excludes the costs of loading and discharging and, if appropriate, stowage and lashing.
Free in Liner out
Abbreviation: FILO. Condition denoting that the freight rate is inclusive of the sea carriage and the cost of discharging, the latter as per the custom of the port. It excludes the cost of loading and, if appropriate, stowage and lashing.
Free of Particular Average, American Conditions
Abbreviation: FPAAC. Average clause which limits recovery of partial losses to those caused by fire, stranding, sinking or collision.
Free of Particular Average, English Conditions
Abbreviation: FPAEC. Same as FPAAC except that the partial losses referred to are recoverable if the vessel has stranded, sunk, burned, been on fire or in a collision, regardless of whether such losses were actually caused by any of these perils.
Free on Board (… Named Port of Shipment)
Abbreviation: FOB. Incoterm
Free on Rail
Former Incoterm, today replaced by Free Carrier (FCA).
→ Free Carrier
Free on Truck
Former Incoterm, today replaced by Free Carrier (FCA).
→ Free Carrier
Abbreviation: F.O. Condition indicating that the charterer of a vessel is responsible for the cost of unloading goods from the vessel.
International port or an area within an international port at which crew, passengers, baggage, cargo, mail and stores may be disembarked or unloaded, may remain and may be transshipped, without being subjected to any customs charges or duties. (Examination is possible, e.g. to meet security or narcotics control requirements.)
Permission granted by local medical authorities, denoting that the vessel has a clean Bill of Health so that people may embark and disembark.
Free Trade Zone
Abbreviation: FTZ. Port designated by the government of a country for duty-free entry of any non-prohibited goods. Merchandise may be stored, displayed, used for manufacturing, etc., within the zone and re-exported without duties being paid. Duties are imposed on the merchandise (or items manufactured from the merchandise) only when the goods pass from the zone into an area of the country subject to the Customs Authority.
Freeboard of a Vessel
Vertical distance from the main deck to the surface of the water measured at the middle of the vessel’s length.
Costs charged by the carrier for transporting goods.
Freight All Kinds
Abbreviation: FAK. Tariff structure which is applied irrespective of the commodity.
Freight and charges are paid by the consignee.
Costs incurred by the merchant in moving goods, by whatever means, from one place to another under the terms of the contract of carriage.
Itemized list of costs for freight charges and services rendered.
Freight and charges to be paid by the shipper.
Unit for calculating freight amount according to weight and/or cubic measurement.
Synonyms: Revenue Ton, Bill of Lading Ton
Freight Ton Kilometers
Index of average amount of freight carried per kilometer flown.
Freight Tons Carried
Index of the weight of cargo flown on board the aircraft.
→ Full Truck Load
→ Free Trade Zone
Full Container Load
Abbreviation: FCL. 1. A container stuffed or stripped under risk and for account of the shipper and/or the consignee. 2. A general reference for identifying container loads of cargo loaded and/or discharged at merchants’ premises.
Full Truck Load
Abbreviation: FTL. Indication for a truck transporting cargo directly from supplier to receiver.
Full Value Declared
Abbreviation: FVD. Notation on an Air Waybill which indicates that a specific value has been declared to the carrier for carriage of the merchandise.
Fully Cellular Containership
Abbreviation: FCC. Vessel specially designed to carry containers, with cell-guides under deck and necessary fittings and equipment on deck.
→ Full Value Declared
→ General Average
Group of workmen acting together especially for loading and/or discharging operations of a vessel in combination with the necessary technical equipment.
Bridge laid from an opening in the railing or side of a vessel to the shore or to a platform with the purpose of giving access to and from the vessel.
Crane or hoisting machine mounted on a frame or structure spanning an intervening space, which often travels on rails. Used for container movements.
→ General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade;
→ General Cargo Rate ùGeneral Commodity Rate
Motor generator set as power source for e.g. thermal containers.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
Abbreviation: GATT. GATT is a binding contract among (in early 1992) 103 governments. GATT was established in 1947 as an interim measure pending the establishment of the International Trade Organization, under the Havana Charter. Operating in the absence of an explicit international organization, GATT has provided the legal framework for international trade with its primary mission being the reduction of trade barriers.
Abbreviation: G/A. Intentional act or sacrifice which is carried out to safeguard vessel and cargo. There is a general average act, when, and only when, any extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure is intentionally and reasonably made or incurred for the common safety for the purpose of preserving from peril the property involved in a common maritime adventure. Loss or damage sustained by the ship or cargo through delay, whether on the voyage or subsequently, such as demurrage, and any indirect loss whatsoever, such as loss of market, shall not be admitted as general average.
→ General Average Act → General Average Security → General Average Statement → York/Antwerp Rules
General Average Act (York-Antwerp Rules)
There is a general average act when, and only when any extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure is intentionally and reasonably made or incurred for the common safety for the purpose of preserving from peril the property involved in a common maritime adventure.
General Average Bond
Document required of cargo owners, after a G/A loss, obtaining their agreement to pay any contribution that may become due.
General Average Contribution
Such losses or expenditures are contributed to by all the interests at risk on the basis of their respective values.
General Average Security
Documents the cargo owner presents to the General Average Adjuster to replace the vessel owner’s maritime lien on cargo for its share of General Average and to obtain release of the goods by the Steamship Company. G/A Security consists of a G/A Bond and either a cash deposit or an underwriter’s guarantee.
General Average Statement
This shows in detail all general average costs and expenses and the contribution of each interest in the general average in proportion to its value.
Cargo, consisting of goods, unpacked or packed, for example in cartons, crates, bags or bales, often palletized.
General Cargo Rate
Abbreviation: GCR. Rate for the carriage of cargo other than a class rate or specific commodity rate (air cargo).
Synonym: → General Commodity Rate
General Commodity Rate
→ General Cargo Rate
General Export License
General license covering goods for which validated export licenses are not required. No formal application or written authorization is needed to ship exports under a general export license.
General Purpose Container
Container used for the carriage of general cargo without any special requirements for the transport and/or the conditioning of the goods.
German classification society.
Ground Handling Agent. Official agent at the airport responsible for moving freight between the terminal and aircraft.
Warehouse or cargo shed. This term is often used in the Far East.
Basic principle of law, also applicable in insurance. A breach of good faith entitles the underwriter to cancel the contract.
Common term indicating movable property, merchandise or wares.
Goods Control Certificate
Document issued by a competent body evidencing the quality of goods described therein, in accordance with national or international standards, or conforming to legislation in the importing country, or as specified in the contract.
Direction and path of the movement of goods and sequence of placement of those goods in a supply chain.
Goods in Transit
Goods which have departed from the initial loading point and not yet arrived at the final unloading point.
Synonyms: Stock in Transit, In Transit Inventory, Transportation Inventory
Document issued by a port, warehouse, shed, or terminal operator acknowledging receipt of goods specified therein on conditions stated or referred to in the document.
Indication of the position of a container in a bay plan by means of a combination of page number, column and line.
Manifest containing freight details without any appropriate disbursements.
Gross Register Ton
Abbreviation: GRT. Volumetric measure of the overall size of a vessel determined in accordance with the provisions of the international convention on measurement of vessels.
1. Weight (mass) of goods including packing, but excluding the carrier’s equipment expressed in whole kilograms. 2. The weight of a shipment including materials necessary for blocking, etc. (air cargo).
Gross Weight of Container
Total weight of container including cargo (in kilograms).
Collection of several small consignments and the formation of one large shipment thereof (road cargo).
→ Gross Register Ton
Ground Security Agent.
Freight payable whether the goods are delivered or not, provided the failure to deliver the goods resulted from causes beyond the carrier’s control.
Held covered at a premium to be arranged.
Amendment of the Warsaw convention at The Hague, September 28, 1955 (air cargo).
International convention for the unification of certain rules, relating to Bills of Lading (1924). These Rules include the description of responsibilities of ocean carriers.
→ Hague-Visby Rules
Set of rules, published in 1968, amending the Hague Rules.
Half Height Container
Container, fitted with or without soft or hard cover, 4'3" in height (used for very dense cargo such as metals).
United Nations Convention on the carriage of goods by sea of 1978 adopted in 1992.
Indication of how cargo is to be handled.
Term used to describe a currency whose value is sound and steady and is generally acceptable at face value internationally.
Abbreviation: HS. Numeric multipurpose system, developed by the Customs Cooperation Council, for the classification of goods. With its six digits it covers about 5000 descriptions of the products or groups of products most commonly produced and traded. It is designed for customs services, but can also be used for statistics, transport purposes, export, import and manufacturing.
Watertight means of closing the hatchway of a vessel.
Opening in the deck of a vessel through which cargo is loaded into, or discharged from the hold and which is closed by means of a hatch cover.
Overland carriage of cargo or containers between named locations/points.
Thermal container served by a heat-producing appliance.
Cargo piece exceeding the capacity of normal loading equipment and requiring special equipment and rigging methods for handling.
Vessel specially designed and equipped for the carriage of heavy cargo.
Abbreviation: H/C. Provisional acceptance of risk, subject to confirmation that cover is needed at a later date. Where applicable to an existing insurance, cover is conditional, in practice, on prompt advice to the underwriter as soon as the insured is aware of the circumstances to be held covered coming into effect, and a reasonable additional premium is payable if the risk held covered comes into effect.
Loading condition of a vessel in such a way that the center of the vessel is slightly raised (archwise in the center).
Space below the deck of a vessel.
Of, relating to, or being an agreement between parties in which one assumes the potential liability for injury that may arise from a situation and thus relieves the other of liability (e.g.: a hold harmless agreement/a hold harmless clause).
Storage space within the bottom (i.e. belly) of an aircraft that can be used to carry cargo.
Port of registration of a vessel.
Honor (a Draft)
To pay or accept a draft on presentation.
Place of receipt or delivery (name and address) in case of carrier haulage.
House Air Waybill
Air Waybill issued by a freight forwarder.
House-to House Transport
Transport of cargo from the premises of the shipper to the premises of the consignee. Note: In the United States the term “Point-to-Point Transport” is used instead of the term “Door-to-Door Transport”, because the term “house” may mean “customs house” or “brokers house”, which are usually located in the port.
→ Harmonized System
Central transshipment point in a transport structure, serving a number of consignees and/or shippers by means of spokes.
Outer shell of a vessel, made of steel plates or other suitable material to keep water outside the vessel.
Taking care of a vessel’s non-cargo-related operations as instructed by the master or owner of such vessel.
→ International Association of Classification Societies
→ International Air Transport Association
IATA Cargo Agent
Agent approved by IATA and registered in the IATA Cargo Agency List. This enables the agent, upon authorization of the IATA carrier, to receive shipments, to execute Air Waybills and to collect charges (air cargo).
Airline which is a member of IATA (air cargo).
→ International Civil Aviation Organization
Institute Cargo Clauses. There are three basic sets of these clauses (A, B and C). The “A” clauses cover all risks, subject to specified exclusions. The “B” and “C” clauses cover specified risks, subject to specified exclusions.
→ Inland Clearance Depot
International Cargo Handling Coordinating Association.
→ International Chamber of Shipping
Amount of ineffective time whereby the available resources are not used, e.g. a container in a yard.
Setting on fire or catching fire.
→ International Labor Organization
→ International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code
→ International Medical Guide for Ships
→ International Maritime Organization
Document required and issued by some national governments authorizing the importation of goods into their individual countries.
Party responsible for the import of goods. For customs purposes it is the party that makes, or on whose behalf an agent makes, an import declaration.
Term applied to the status of merchandise admitted provisionally to a country without payment of duties either for storage in a bonded warehouse or for transshipment to another point, where duties will eventually be imposed.
Status of goods or persons between the outwards customs clearance and inwards customs clearance.
In 1936, the International Chamber of Commerce first published a set of international rules for the interpretation of trade terms. These rules became known as Incoterms. Amendments and additions have occurred in 1953, 1967, 1976, 1980, 1990 and 2000.
Incremental Cost to Export
Additional costs incurred while manufacturing and preparing a product for export (e.g., product modifications, special export packaging and export administration costs). This does not include the costs to manufacture a standard domestic product, export crating and transportation to the foreign market.
Compensation of lading for a loss and/or the expenses incurred.
Any route other than the direct route.
Individually Validated Export License
A required document issued by the Government authorizing the export of specific commodities. This license is for a specific transaction or time period in which the exporting is to take place.
Characteristic of cargo which causes, or is liable to cause, loss or damage to the cargo, without any accident occurring (e.g. spontaneous combustion). It is always excluded by the insurers of the cargo because of its inevitable nature.
Inland Bill of Lading
Synonym for Consignment Note, used in USA and Canada.
Inland Clearance Depot
Abbreviation: ICD. Inland location where cargo, particularly containerized, may be cleared by customs.
Inland Waterways Bill of Lading
Transport document made out to a named person, to order or to bearer, signed by the carrier and handed to the sender after receipt of the goods.
Company providing inspection of goods and packing to meet special requirements and specifications called for by buyer and seller.
Thermal container without devices for cooling and/or heating.
Insulated Tank Container
Container frame holding one or more thermal insulated tanks for liquids.
It is illegal for anyone to insure without an insurable interest or, in the case of marine insurance, a reasonable expectation of acquiring such interest. In general, a party has such interest when its relationship to property at risk may result in the exposure to loss or liability and where it stands to gain by the safety of the property.
Protection against loss or damage for which a party agrees to pay a certain sum (premiums) for a guarantee that they will be compensated under certain conditions for loss or damage.
Proof of an insurance contract.
Party covering the risks of the insured goods and/or services.
SwissGlobalCargo’s time definite door-to-door airfreight service without weight limits.
Integrated Logistics Support
Systematic approach applied to simultaneous management of equipment and related logistics support, in order to provide the customer with a desired level of goods available.
As opposed to coastal water operations, intercoastal refers to water transport carried out between coasts (e.g. between Pacific and Atlantic coasts).
Cooperative formed by 19 European railways, for the management of international rail container traffic in Europe.
Receipt given by a carrier pending execution of an Air Waybill.
Cooperation between two or more airlines for the carriage over particular routes.
Carriage over the routes of two or more parties of an interline agreement.
Carrier with whom another carrier has an interline agreement.
Movement of goods (containers) in one and the same loading unit or vehicle which successively uses several modes of transport without handling the goods themselves in changing modes.
International Air Transport Association
Abbreviation: IATA. International organization of airlines, founded in 1945, with the aim of promoting commercial air traffic. It encourages cooperation between parties concerned and ensures that these interested parties follow certain rules, procedures and tariffs, regarding both cargo and passengers.
International Association of Classification Societies
Abbreviation: IACS. Organization in which the major classification societies, among others American Bureau of Shipping, Lloyd’s Register of Shipping and Germanischer Lloyd, are joined. Its principal aim is the improvement of standards concerning safety at sea.
Carriage whereby the place of departure and any place of landing are situated in more than one country.
International Chamber of Shipping
Unique data, e.g. name, number or code, determining a certain object or person.
International Chamber of Shipping
Abbreviation: ICS. Voluntary organization of national shipowners’ associations with the objective of promoting the interests of its members, primarily in the technical and legal fields of shipping operations.
International Civil Aviation Organization
Abbreviation: ICAO. International organization of governments, dealing with search and rescue in distress, weather information, telecommunications and navigational requirements.
International Labor Organization
Abbreviation: ILO. United Nations agency, dealing with employment rights and working conditions, covering work at sea and in ports.
International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code
Abbreviation: IMDG Code. Code, representing the classification of dangerous goods as defined by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in compliance with international legal requirements.
International Maritime Organization
Abbreviation: IMO. United Nations agency concerned with safety at sea. Its work includes codes and rules relating to tonnage measurement of vessels, load lines, pollution and the carriage of dangerous goods. Its previous name was the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO).
International Medical Guide for Ships
Abbreviation: IMGS. “The doctor at sea.”
International Organization for Standardization
Abbreviation: ISO. International Standards Organization also referred to as the International Organization for Standardization. This is a worldwide federation of national standards member bodies. It consists of technical committees made up of governmental and non-governmental international organizations. Draft international standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to member bodies for voting. Adoption of standards requires approval of at least 75% of member bodies that cast a vote.
International Safety Management Code
This international standard for the safe management and operation of ships prescribes rules for the organization of a shipping company management in the context of safety and pollution prevention and requires the development and implementation of a safety management system.
International Transport and Information System
Abbreviation: INTIS. Organization with the aim to improve the position of the port of Rotterdam by the development, realization and exploitation of a communication and information network through computers.
→ International Transport and Information System
Panalpina’s invoice tracking system.
A detailed list of goods located in a certain place or belonging to a specified object.
Synonym: Stock List
Irrevocable Letter of Credit
Letter of Credit with a fixed expiry date that carries the irrevocable obligation of the issuing bank to pay the exporter when all of the terms and conditions of the Letter of Credit have been met.
→ International Organization for Standardization
Carrier whose Air Waybill is issued.
Separate article or unit.
Route of a means of transport, indicated by the names of the ports of call or other locations, often including estimated arrival and departure dates.
J. and W.O.
Jettison and Washing Overboard.
Throwing the cargo or ship’s property overboard to save other property from a common danger.
Mole or breakwater, running out into the sea to protect harbor or coast. It is sometimes used as a landing-pier.
→ Just-in- Time
Charge which applies to the carriage over the lines of two or more carriers and which is published as a single amount (air cargo).
Rate which applies for carriage over the lines of two or more carriers and which is published as single amount (air cargo).
Business undertaking in which more than one firm share ownership and control of production and/or marketing.
The power that a court of law or an official person has to carry out legal judgements or enforce law.
Juridical decisions used for explanation and meaning of law.
Abbreviation: JIT. 1. The movement of material/goods to the required place at the required time. Each operation is closely synchronized with the subsequent ones to make this possible. 2. A method of inventory control that brings stock into the production process, warehouse or to the customer just-in-time to be used, thus reducing stockpiling.
1. A method which, during storage, uses standard units or lot sizes with a single card attached to each. 2. A pull system used at a stock point in which a supply batch is ordered only when a previous batch is withdrawn.
Note: Kanban in Japanese means loosely translated “card or sign”.
Longitudinal girder at the lowest point of a vessel from which the framework is built.
Unit of measurement for the speed (of a vessel) equal to a nautical mile (= 1852 meters) per hour.
Convention for the International Customs Cooperation Council held in Kyoto in 1973 for the simplification and harmonization of national customs procedures.
→ Letter of Credit
Slip of e.g. paper or metal attached to an object to indicate the nature, ownership, destination, contents and/or other particulars of the object.
→ Loaden Vessel
Movement of goods from one port to another partially by land and partially by water, as a substitute for all-water transport.
To hold goods in position by the use of e.g. wires, ropes, chains and straps.
→ Lighter Aboard Ship
Point on a means of transport to which wires, chains, ropes or straps, which are used to hold goods in position, are attached.
Participating airline over which air routes the last section of carriage under the Air Waybill is undertaken or performed.
Last in/First out
Abbreviation: LIFO. Method of which the assumption is that the most recently received (last in) is the first to be used or sold (first out).
Angular distance of a position on its meridian north or south from the equator, measured in degrees.
Number of days allowed in a charter party for the loading and discharging of cargo. Lay days may be indicated in different ways, e.g. consecutive days, working days, weather working days.
Lay up a Vessel
Temporary cessation of trading of a vessel by the shipowner.
→ Less than Container Load
1. The amount of time between the request of a service and the actual provision of this service. 2. A span of time required to perform an activity. 3. In a logistics context, the time between the initiation of a process and its completion.
Contract by which one party gives to another party the use of property or equipment, e.g. containers, for a specified time against fixed payments.
→ Leasing Company
Company from which property or equipment is taken on lease.
Contract for the leasing of property or equipment.
Less than Container Load
Abbreviation: LCL. 1. A general reference for identifying cargo in any quantity intended for carriage in a container, where the carrier is responsible for packing and/or unpacking the container. 2. For operational purposes a LCL (less than full container load) container is considered a container in which multiple consignments or parts thereof are shipped.
Less than Truck Load
Abbreviation: LTL. Term used if the quantity or volume of one or more consignment(s) does not fill a standard truck.
Party to whom the possession of specified property has been conveyed for a period of time in return for rental payments.
Party who conveys specified property to another for a period of time in return for the receipt of rent.
Letter of Credit
Abbreviation: L/C. Method of payment between buyer and seller. The buyer opens a Letter of Credit in favor of the seller at their local bank by depositing the amount of the purchase price and dictating certain documents which the seller must present in order to obtain a payment. The Letter of Credit will be sent to a bank in the vicinity of the seller and upon presentation of the documents called for, the local bank will release payment.
Letter of Credit, Payment by Sight Draft
Document, issued by a bank per instructions by a buyer of goods, authorizing the seller to draw a specified sum of money under specified terms, usually the receipt by the bank of certain documents, within a given time.
Letter of Indemnity
Written confirmation of holding a specified party harmless. E.g.: When a bank refuses to accept a foul Bill of Lading, the shipper may obtain a clean Bill of Lading. To acquire this, the shipper signs a letter of indemnity, which is an inducement to obtain the clean Bill of Lading through the dock or mate’s receipt, given on delivery of the goods to dock or ship, showing that the shipment was damaged or in bad condition. This acts as a form of guarantee whereby the shipper accords a claim settlement against a steamship by a Bill of Lading holder resulting from a clean bill being issued.
Letter of Instruction
Written directions to be followed.
Legal responsibility for the consequences of certain acts or omissions.
Business arrangement in which the manufacturer of a product (with proprietary rights over certain technology or trademarks) grants permission to some other group or individual to manufacture that product (or make use of that proprietary material) in return for specified royalties or other payment.
Legal claim on assets (personal or commercial) to pay a debt or duty.
Life Cycle Cost
Encompasses all costs associated with the product’s life cycle. These include all costs involved in acquisition (research & development, design, production & construction and phase-in), operation, support and disposal of the product.
→ Last in First out >Liner in Free out
Abbreviation: LOLO. Vessel of which the loading and discharging operations are carried out by cranes and derricks.
Open or covered barge towed by a tugboat and used mainly in harbors and inland waterways.
Lighter Aboard Ship
Vessel which carries barges.
Carriage of goods within a port area by a barge, e.g. from a vessel to a quay.
Weight of an empty vessel including equipment and outfit, spare parts required by the regulatory bodies, machinery in working condition and liquids in the systems, but excluding liquids in the storage tanks, stores and crew.
Group of two or more shipping lines, which provides international liner services for the carriage of cargo on a particular trade route and which has an agreement or arrangement to operate under uniform or common freight rates and any other agreed conditions (e.g. FEFC = Far Eastern Freight Conference).
Liner in Free out
Abbreviation: LIFO. Transport condition denoting that the freight rate is inclusive of the sea carriage and the cost of loading, the latter as per the custom of the port. It excludes the cost of discharging.
Connection through vessels between ports within a trade.
Liner Shipping Company
Company transporting cargo in a regular service by ocean vessels.
Condition of carriage denoting that costs for loading and unloading are borne by the carrier subject to the custom of the port concerned.
Cargo consisting of live animals, such as horses, cows, sheep and chickens.
Lloyd’s Register of Shipping
British classification society.
Quantity or nature of what is being carried. This term normally refers to transport by truck.
Load Factor Management
Process of maximizing the utilization of the (slot) capacity of vessels and/or other means of transport.
→ Yield Management
Person supervising process of loading and unloading.
Vessel where cargo has been put on board.
Physical process of bringing cargo into a means of transport.
Flat surface to facilitate loading usually alongside a warehouse.
Load calculator designed for a vessel approved by a classification bureau for the calculation of the vessel’s stability.
Method of financing by which an exporter borrows on the basis of drafts turned over to a bank for collection.
ocument signed by the assured where they acknowledge receipt of money advanced by the insurance company as an interest-free loan (instead of payment of a loss) repayable to the insurance company only if the loss is recovered from a third party and then only to the extent of the recovery.
For marine purposes: A space, enclosed at the sides by walls and at each end by gates, by which a vessel can be floated up or down to a different level.
Compartment, in a shed or on board of a vessel, used as a safekeeping place to stow valuable goods, and which can be secured by means of a lock.
Daily report of all events and other relevant particulars of a vessel and attested by the proper authorities as a true record.
All successive links involved in the logistic process.
→ Lift-on/Lift-off Vessel
Transportation of cargo by truck over long distances.
Angular distance of a position on the equator east or west of the standard Greenwich meridian, up to 180 degrees east or west.
Motor truck used for transport of goods. Note: Motor truck is an American term.
British synonym for motor truck is heavy goods vehicle. This British term means any vehicle exceeding 7.5 metric tons maximum laden weight.
Loss of Market
Situation in which, for one reason or another, sound cargo is no longer wanted by the consignee when it arrives. This is a “business loss” not recoverable under a Marine Cargo Policy; e.g., Christmas trees arriving in January undamaged.
→ Less than Truck Load
Crane with which the load can be moved to or from the vessel horizontally.
Travelers’ baggage, suitcases, boxes, etc., normally accompanied by a passenger.
Agreed sum of money, which is paid in full settlement at one time. This term is often used in connection with charter parties.
Voyage charter whereby the shipowner agrees to place the whole or a part of the vessel’s capacity at the charterer’s disposal for which a lump-sum freight is paid.
German brand name of a roll trailer used for RoRo purposes.
First voyage of a vessel or aircraft after delivery to its owner(s).
Main- Line Operator
Abbreviation: MLO. Carrier employing vessel(s) in the main or principal routes in a trade but not participating within a consortium.
Sequence of events in a goods flow which preserves and/or restores the value of a specific good. E.g. repair.
Document which lists the specifications of goods loaded in a means of transport or equipment for transportation purposes. As a rule cargo manifests are drawn up by the agents in the place of loading. Note: For shipping, a manifest represents an accumulation of Bills of Lading for official and administrative purposes.
Marine Insurance Policy
nsurance policy protecting the insured against loss or damage to goods which occurred during transportation.
Marking (or Marks)
Letters, numbers, and other symbols placed on cargo packages to facilitate identification.
Master Air Waybill
Abbreviation: MAWB. Air Waybill issued by the originating airline when more than one airline is involved with a shipment, or when a freight forwarder issues a House Air Waybill.
Document signed by the chief officer of a vessel acknowledging the receipt of a certain consignment on board of that vessel. On this document, remarks can be made as to the order and condition of the consignment.
Any circumstances which would influence the judgment of a prudent underwriter in determining whether to accept a risk and the amount of premium to charge.
Statement made to the underwriter before acceptance of risk which is material to the decision in accepting and rating the risk.
Activities of loading, unloading, placing and manipulating material and of in-process movement.
Means of Transport
Type of vehicle used for the transport of goods (e.g. aircraft, barge, truck, ship or train).
Ton of one cubic meter water.
Legal enforceable claim that a person who has performed work or provided materials is permitted to make against title to the property or as a preferential person in the event the estate or business is liquidated.
Medical First Aid Guide
Abbreviation: MFAG. Instructions to be consulted in case of accidents involving dangerous goods.
For cargo carried under the terms and conditions of the carrier’s Bill of Lading and of a tariff, it means any trader or persons (e.g. shipper, consignee) and including anyone acting on their behalf, owning or entitled to possession of the goods.
Inland transport of cargo in shipping containers arranged by the merchant. It includes empty container-moves to and from hand-over points with respect to containers released by the carrier to merchants. Note: Carrier’s responsibility under the Bill of Lading does not include the inland transport stretch under merchant haulage.
Merchant Inspired Carrier Haulage
Carrier haulage by a carrier, which is nominated by the shipper or receiver of the goods, but paid by the carrier.
Distance between the center of gravity of a vessel and a fictitious point. If the meta-centric height is zero or negative, the vessel will heel or capsize.
→ Medical First Aid Guide
→ Most Favored Nation Status
Marine Gas Oil. Fuel used for operating the vessel.
At or in the middle of a vessel.
Lowest amount which applies to the transport of a consignment, irrespective of weight or volume (air cargo, shipping).
Minimum Connection Time
Shortest amount of time needed to move transshipments successfully from an arriving flight to the next departing flight.
Planned minimum allowable inventory for an independent demand item.
Consignment of different commodities, articles or goods, packed or tied together or contained in separate packages.
Mode of Transport
Method of transport used for the conveyance of goods (e.g. by rail, by road, by sea).
Most Favored Nation Status
Abbreviation: MFN. Provision of certain international agreements, including the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which affords countries the right to have their goods treated no less favorably than the goods of any other country. For example, the GATT MFN clause gives each member the right to have customs duties levied upon its products at the lowest rate offered to any other member nation.
MPC Multi Purpose Carrier
→ Multi-Purpose Vessel
→ Multi-Purpose Vessel
Vessel designed for the carriage of different types of cargo: general, bulk, heavy and/or containerized cargo.
Synonym: → Multi-Purpose Carrier (MPC)
Carriage of goods (containers) by at least two different modes of transport.
Multimodal Transport Document
Multimodal Transport Operator/Carrier
Abbreviation: MTO/Carrier. Entity on whose behalf the transport document or any document evidencing a contract of multimodal carriage of goods is issued and which is responsible for the carriage of goods pursuant to the contract of carriage.
Selecting of and working with more than two equivalent suppliers for a certain product.
Net Absolutely; no deductions from gross premium for brokerage or discount.
No Risk After Discharge or No Risk After Landing (N.R.L.D.) especially in use for merchandise consigned to an area where political or other conditions are unsettled.
No Risk After Shipment.
No Risk to Attach till on Rail.
No Risk to Attach till Water Borne; particularly used where congestion (conflagration hazard) exists.
Named Perils Policy
Any marine policy limiting cover to perils specifically listed in the policy; opposed to All Risks policy.
Narrow Body Aircraft
Aircraft with one corridor, such as a DC-9 and a Boeing 737.
Act of determining position, location and course to the destination of an aircraft or a vessel.
Imprudent action or omission which may cause injury, damage or loss.
In terms of documents, “negotiable” means that e.g. a Bill of Lading is handed over/transferred in the right manner (viz. proper endorsement) to another person. It is either endorsed in blank or endorsed to a person, and that person acquires by this transfer certain rights vis-a-vis the goods (i.e. is entitled to take possession of the goods).
Manifest containing all freight details including negotiated disbursements.
Net Register Ton
Volumetric measure of the useful capacity of a vessel determined in accordance with the provisions of the international convention on tonnage measurement of vessels.
Weight of the goods, excluding all packing.
No Value Declared
Abbreviation: NVD. Notation on Air Waybill which indicates that no specific value has been declared to the carrier for carriage of the merchandise. Liability of the carrier would therefore be as defined by statute or as incorporated in the Waybill.
Non Vessel Operating Carrier
Abbreviation: NVOC. Party that undertakes to carry goods and issues in its own name a Bill of Lading for such carriage, without having own means of transport.
Failure of the insured or their broker to disclose a material circumstance to the underwriter before acceptance of the risk. A breach of good faith.
Abbreviation: N.D. Disappearance of an entire shipping package rather than the contents themselves or a portion of the contents.
Airline company which is not a member of IATA but which may work on terms of IATA as an interline partner.
Abbreviation: NTB. Economic, political, administrative or legal impediments to trade other than duties, taxes, and import quotas.
→ Notice of Readiness
Specified general cargo rate without any quantity discount (air cargo).
Normal Course of Transit
Orderly transit of merchandise from the point of origin to the final destination without interruptions or delays resulting from the action or inaction of any party at interest.
Normal General Cargo Rate
Under 45 kg rate or, if no under 45 kg rate exists, the under 100 kg rate (air cargo).
Synonym: → Normal Rate
→ Normal General Cargo Rate
Notice of Abandonment
Condition which must precede a constructive total loss. If the insured fails to give notice to the underwriter, the loss can be treated only as a partial loss unless an actual total loss is proven. An underwriter who accepts notice admits liability for the loss. Notice is not necessary where it would not benefit the underwriter, where the underwriter waives the obligation or in the case of a reinsurance provided the policy incorporates the “waiver” clause. Action taken by an underwriter to prevent or reduce the loss is not deemed to be an acceptance of abandonment.
Notice of Readiness
Abbreviation: NOR. 1. Written document or telex issued by the master of a vessel to the charterers advising them the moment when a vessel is ready to load or discharge. 2. Document advising a consignee or their agent that cargo has arrived and is ready for delivery.
Address of the party other than the consignee to be advised of the arrival of the goods.
Party to be notified of arrival of goods.
→ Non-Tariff Barriers
→ No Value Declared
→ Non Vessel Operating Common Carrier
→ Oil Bulk Ore Vessel
Products or materials that cannot be or are unlikely to be used in future processes and which are to be sold or disposed of through the usual outlets.
Ocean Bill of Lading
Bill of Lading (B/L) issued by the actual shipping line.
→ Original Equipment Manufacturers
The organization of logistics contract work carried out at sea (e.g. logistics in drilling for oil).
Oil Bulk Ore Vessel
Abbreviation: OBO Vessel. Vessel, designed for the carriage of either dry or liquid bulk cargo.
On Board Bill of Lading
Bill of Lading confirming the receipt of merchandise and the fact that it was loaded on board the ocean vessel.
On Deck Bill of Lading
Bill of Lading which states that the cargo has been stowed on deck.
Charge which applies to carriage over the lines of a single carrier (air cargo).
Synonym: → On-Line Rate
→ On-Line Charge
Carriage of goods (containers) by any mode of transport to the place of delivery after discharge from the ocean vessel (main means of transport) at the port (place) of discharge.
Disposable Pallet, only used once. Note: The addition “One Way” has nothing to do with the number of pallet sides in which the forks of e.g. a fork lift can enter, as opposed to the two- and four-way pallets.
The organization of logistics contract work carried out on land.
Abbreviation: O/A. Trade arrangement in which goods are shipped to a foreign buyer without guarantee of payment. The obvious risk this method poses to the supplier makes it essential that the buyer’s integrity be unquestionable. The transaction is payable when specified (i.e., R/M return mail; E.O.M. end of month; 30 days – 30 days from date of invoice; 2/10/60 – 2% discount for payment in 10 days, net if paid 60 days from date of invoice). If no term is specified O/A usually implies payment by return mail.
Open Insurance Policy
Marine insurance policy that applies to all shipments made by an exporter over a period of time rather than to one shipment only.
Exposure to a foreign-exchange risk not covered by an offsetting transaction.
Shipping container with frames of wire mesh at the sides covered by means of a tarpaulin which can be dropped down to give unrestricted access to the sides of the container for loading or discharging.
Shipping container similar in all respects to a general purpose container except that it has no rigid roof but may have a flexible and movable or removable cover, for example one made of canvas or plastic or reinforced plastic material normally supported on movable or removable roof bows.
Ratio of the actual output of a piece of equipment, department, or plant as compared to the planned or standard output.
Party responsible for the day-to-day operational management of certain premises such as warehouses, terminals and vessels.
Best calculated trim related to speed engine capacity, fuel consumption for a specific sailing condition.
Achieving the best possible solution to a problem in terms of a specified objective function.
Cargo of which the final destination is not defined at the moment of departure of the vessel, but will be indicated during the voyage.
Port of which it is not known whether or not it will be called by a vessel during a voyage.
Optional Stowage Bill of Lading
Bill of Lading which gives the carrier the right to stow cargo wherever they see fit, especially with respect to the stowage of containers on deck.
Request to deliver specified quantities of goods or to render specific services.
Order Bill of Lading
Negotiable Bill of Lading made out to the order of a named party.
Each line on a customer’s purchase order. An order line always contains one Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) only, but the number may vary.
Original Equipment Manufacturers
Abbreviation: OEM. Customers who incorporate the exporter’s product into their own merchandise for resale under their own brand names.
Out of Gauge Cargo
Cargo of which dimensions exceed the normal dimensions of a 20- or 40-feet container, e.g. overlength, overwidth, overheight, or combinations thereof.
Shipping line, which operates on a route served by a liner conference but which is not a member of that conference.
Written statement by a stevedoring company in which the condition of cargo discharged from a vessel is noted along with any discrepancies in the quantity compared with the vessel’s manifest.
Operations to be performed on outgoing goods from a production unit, both administrative and physical, starting at the moment forwarding orders can be executed to the moment of actual departure of the goods.
Over Pivot Rate
Rate per kilogram to be charged for the over pivot weight (air cargo).
Over Pivot Weight
Weight in excess of the pivot weight (air cargo).
Overage Additional Premium
All additional premiums charged on an open cover declaration where the carrying vessel is outside the scope of the classification clause. It may be applied, also, to additional premium charged for breach of navigational warranties (e.g. institute warranties) where the ship is more than 15 years old.
Carrier within a consortium which carries cargo beyond the allotment distributed to them.
Cargo exceeding the standard height.
Cargo exceeding the standard length.
Unit used by a single shipper to contain one or more package(s) and to form one handling unit for convenience of handling and stowage. Dangerous goods packages contained in the overpack must be properly packed, marked, labeled and in proper condition as required by the regulations regarding dangerous goods (air cargo).
Work beyond normal established working hours.
Cargo exceeding the standard width.
Legal owner of cargo, equipment or means of transport.
Owner’s Container Code
Policy Proof of Interest (honor policy).
→ Protection and Indemnity Club
1. Any physical piece of cargo in relation to transport consisting of the contents and its packing for the purpose of ease of handling by manual or mechanical means. 2. The final product of the packing operation consisting of the packing and its contents to facilitate manual or mechanical handling.
Materials used for the containment, protection, handling, delivery and presentation of goods and the activities of placing and securing goods in those materials.
Any container or other covering in which goods are packed.
Document issued within an enterprise giving instructions on how goods are to be packed.
Document specifying the contents of each individual package.
Type of package where a standard quantity of products of a specific product type can be packed and that requires no additional packaging for storage and shipment.
Panalpina’s inhouse communications system. Stands for Panalpina Communication.
Low portable platform, usually wooden, on which cargo is stacked for storage or transportation; a skid.
Superstructure which can be applied to a pallet to convert it into either a box or post pallet.
Skeleton framework, of fixed or adjustable design, to support a number of individual pallet loads.
Pedestrian- or rider-controlled non-stacking lift truck fitted with forks.
Maximum measurements and dimensions of a vessel capable of passing the Panama Canal.
Panalpina’s global track and trace system which enables both Panalpina employees and customers to check the status of consignments.
Neither a CASS Airline nor a billing participant, which advises the Settlement Office of amounts due to it from agents (air cargo).
1. A carrier participating in a tariff and which therefore applies the rates, charges, routing and regulations of the tariff (air cargo). 2. A carrier over whose air routes one or more sections of carriage under the Air Waybill is undertaken or performed (air cargo).
Abbreviation: P.A. 1. Partial loss or damage to the goods. 2. Fortuitous partial loss to the subject matter insured, proximately caused by an insured peril but which is not a general average. Particular average only relates to damage, loss and/or expenses which are exclusively borne by the owners of a vessel which has sustained damage as a result of e.g. heavy weather or by the owners of the cargo, which has been damaged in transit.
Party to whom a payment is made or owed.
Party who pays or is to pay.
Maximum amount of cargo weight which can be loaded on a particular means of transport.
Payment against Documents
Instructions given by a seller to a bank that the buyer may collect the documents only upon payment of the invoice.
Variable indicating the effectiveness and/or efficiency of a process.
Comparison of the results of business processes with certain standards in order to know the effectiveness of these processes and/or the supportive actions.
Perils of the Sea
Fortuitous accidents or casualties, peculiar to transportation on a navigable water, such as stranding, sinking, collision of the vessel, striking a submerged object or encountering heavy weather or other unusual forces of nature.
Fresh produce that can spoil in a short amount of time (such as fruits, fish, meat, flowers).
Those activities related to the flow of goods from the end of conversion to the customer.
Physical Distribution Management
Planning execution and control of those activities which are related to the flow of goods from the end of conversion to the customer.
→ Pilot in Command
Pick and Pack
Taking goods out of a stock and packing them according to customer conditions.
Order to pick certain quantities of goods out of a stock.
Pick up Service
Carriage of outbound consignments from the shipper’s place to the place of departure.
Pick-up and Delivery
Service concerning the collection of cargo from the premises of the shipper and the delivery to the premises of the consignee.
Taking products or components out of a stock.
List used to collect items from stores to fulfil an order.
Synonym: Material Issue List, Kitting List
Carriage of road vehicles and trailers on railway wagons.
Theft of part of the contents of a shipping package.
Pilot in Command
Abbreviation: PIC. Pilot responsible for the operation and safety of the aircraft during flight time (air cargo).
1. A method for conveying liquids and gasses. 2. The physical goods flow from a supplying organization to a receiving organization.
Amount of goods in a pipeline: the sum of loading stock, goods in transit and receiving stock.
Minimum chargeable weight of a Unit Load Device (air cargo).
Place of Acceptance
→ Place of Receipt
Place of Delivery
Location where a consignment (shipment) is delivered to the consignee viz. the place where the carrier’s liability ends for the transport venture.
Place of Receipt
Location where a consignment (shipment) is received by the carrier from the shipper viz. the place where the carrier’s liability for transport venture commences.
Synonym: → Place of Acceptance
Activity of positioning an object or goods in a chosen location or position.
Setting of goals over a certain time and determining the methods for achieving these goals as well as the resources used.
Area on an airport where aircraft are parked for embarkation and/or loading and discharging purposes.
Truck or trailer with a floor but no ends, sides or top.
All activities connected with an aircraft during the time it is on the platform.
Mark, welded on both sides of the vessel, which gives the limit to which a vessel may be loaded, depending on the specific gravity of the water in which the vessel is situated.
Point value is the relative value of an empty container of a certain size and type in a depot location. The system serves to quantify the imbalance costs resulting from a full container move and are the result of empty optimization calculations. Point values are created on forecasted container flows between depot locations. They are calculated taking into account the forecasted imbalances plus repositioning, storage and container costs for empty moves and expressed in USD. Note: In the various computer systems point values are used to calculate the imbalance charge or credit for a particular container flow. This charge or credit is the difference in point values between start and end depot location.
In export financing, the risk of loss due to currency inconvertibility, government action preventing entry of goods, expropriation or confiscation, and war.
Vessel with flat deck and a shallow draft.
Shared use of e.g. equipment by a number of companies that also share the investment required.
Aft part of a vessel where the steering engine is located.
Port of Discharge
Port where the cargo is discharged from the ocean- going vessel.
Port of Loading
Port where the cargo is loaded on board the ocean -going vessel.
Type of gantry crane with vertical legs of sufficient height and width to permit vehicles or railroad equipment to pass between the legs.
Record of a vessel’s actual arrival and departure time, used tugs, draft, deadweight, quantity of discharged and loaded goods/containers and any other important particulars.
Transport of empty equipment from a depot to shipper’s premises or from consignee’s premises back to a depot as the empty leg of a carrier haulage transport.
National code maintained by the Postal Authorities designed to indicate areas and accumulated addresses to facilitate sorting and the delivery of mail and other goods.
Carriage of goods (containers) by any mode of transport from the place of receipt to the port of loading.
Carrier by which the goods are moved prior to the main transport.
Abbreviation: PSI. Checking of goods before shipment for the purpose of determining the quantity and/or quality of said goods by an independent surveyor (inspection company). The inspection can also be for the purpose of determining whether the price charged for certain goods is correct, a practice used by some countries.
Act of placing goods in slings which are left in position and are used for loading into and discharging from a conventional vessel.
Abbreviation: PTI. Technical inspection of Reefer containers prior to positioning for stuffing.
Charges entered on the Air Waybill for payment in advance by the shipper (air cargo).
Freight paid by the shipper to the carrier when merchandise is accepted for shipment. Not refundable even if the merchandise does not arrive at the intended destination.
Price Quotation/Pro Forma Invoice
Invoice prepared by the seller in advance of shipment that documents the cost of goods sold, freight, insurance and other related charges. It is often used by the buyer to secure a Letter of Credit, an import licence or a foreign currency allocation.
Person or entity for whom another acts as agent.
Order which is identified as taking precedence over other orders to ensure its completion in the minimum time.
Synonym: Urgent Order, Rush Order
Draft invoice sent to an importer by the exporter prior to order confirmation and shipment to assist in matters relating to obtaining import licenses or foreign exchange allocations, or to advise the value of a consignment so that Letters of Credit can be opened.
Activities which ensure the availability of the material and/or services in the desired quantity, quality, place and time from the supplier.
Control of the flow of materials up to the manufacturing process.
Relative measure of output of labor hour or machine hour.